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Microhemorrhages in the corpus callosum as the distinctive anoxic brain injury

D. Park; Guri-si/KR

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Aims and objectives: Vasogenic edema in the corpus callosum has been reported to be a characteristic finding in severe acute respiratory distress including high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Furthermore, microhemorrhages in the corpus callosum have been found at autopsies in HACE victims. This study is to present micr[...]

Methods and materials: Among 30 patients who survived from anoxic brain injury and conducted MR imaging, including susceptibility weighted image (SWI), five patients show microhemorrhages in the corpus callosum, who are evaluated. All of them don't have any previous history of acute moutain sickness, COPD and/or sepsis th[...]

Results: SWI reveals multiple microhemorrhages, predominantly in the corpus callosum in all five patients who suffered from anoxic brain injury (Fig. 1-3). These callosal microhemorrhages looks similar to the microhemorrhages that has previously been described in climbers who suffered from HACE. The incidenc[...]

Conclusion: Microhemorrhages especially in corpus callosum are reported to occur in nonlethal HACE, which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in patients who had suffered from HACE and in patients who had suffered from severe acute mountain sickness (AMS) by applying imaging techniques highly suscept[...]

Personal information: Dong Woo Park MD, Department of Radiology, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Guri, South Korea; dwpark@hanyang.ac.kr

References: Roach RC, Hackett PH. Frontiers of hypoxia research: acute mountain sickness. J Exp Biol. 2001;204(18):3161-70 Kallenberg K, Dehnert C, Dörfler A, et al. Microhemorrhages in nonfatal high-altitude cerebral edema. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008;28(9):1635-42. Wilson MH, Imray CH, Hargens AR. The head[...]


Sonography of Gastrointestinal Tract Abnormalities

D. Yang, H. Kim, S. Kim; Seoul/KR

Learning objectives: To illustrate the sonographic findings of the various kinds of gastrointestinal tract abnormalities.

Background: Potential disadvantages of sonography for the evaluation of gastrointestinal tracts: the examination may be compromised by bowel gas, fecal materials, and obesity and the sonography is highly operator dependent. However, sonogaphy has several advantages, including wide availability, easy performan[...]

Findings and procedure details: US techniques The choice of transducer is based on the patient’s body habitus: A 2.5- to 5-MHz convex transducer is used for heavy patients. A 7- to 12 MHz linear tranducer is used for an average-size or thin patient and generally for assessment of superficial abnormalities. The examination can be g[...]

Conclusion: Although there was substantial overlap of sonographic findings in the various kinds gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, familiarity with the sonographic findings can assist in making the correct diagnosis.

Personal information:

References: Kuzmich S, Howlett DC, Andi A, Shah D, Kuzmick T. Transabdominal sonography in assessment of the bowel in adults. AJR 2009;192:197-212 d’Almeida M, Jose J, Oneto J et al. Bowel wall thickening in children Radiographics 2008;28:727-746 Hollerweger A. Colonic disease: the value of US examination. EJR [...]


Quantitative Measurement of Heterogeneity on Thyroid Ultrasonography in Patients with Diffuse Thyroid Gland Pathology : Pilot Study.  

S. Jeong1, S. Jeon1, Y. Kim2, S. Choi1; 1 Iksan/KR 2 Iksan-si Jeollabuk-do/KR

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Aims and objectives: Diffuse thyroid disease(DTD) encompasses diverse clinical entities including Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis and it is commonly observed throughout the population.1 Current role of ultrasonography in evaluating diffuse thyroid disease(DTD) is limited. It is generally bel[...]

Methods and materials: Quantitative measurement of thyroid parenchymal heterogeneity was done with following subjects and methods.   Patients Total 34 patients with or without diffuse thyroid disease were enrolled, with a male:female ratio of 15:19, and a mean age of 39.7±15.3. Among these, 19 patients had clinically[...]

Results: The mean CV value of the control group was 16.51±3.53. However, the mean CV value of the diseased group was 19.56±2.40, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (p value=0.009).   On ROC curve analysis, the area under the curve(AUC) was 0.804 with a p value of 0.003. The[...]

Conclusion: The CV(coefficient of variance) value of diffuse thyroid disease group was higher than that of control group. The heterogeneity of thyroid parenchyma can be measured using the CV value on thyroid ultrasound image.

Personal information: SooYeon Jeong M.D., Department of radiology, Wonkwang university hospital, Korea. Se Jeong Jeon M.D., Department of radiology, Wonkwang university hospital, Korea. Youe Ree Kim M.D., Department of radiology, Wonkwang university hospital, Korea. See Sung Choi M.D., Department of radiology, Wonkwang u[...]

References: [1] Park, et al. BMC cancer 2013, 13:550. [2] Kim, et al. AJNR 2010 31:1956-1960.


Ectopic Lesions in the Abdomen: Imaging and Pathology

K. Kim, Y. Park, J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Lee, C. Park; Seoul/KR

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Learning objectives:     1. To discuss and illustrate the imaging features of various ectopic lesions in the abdomen   2. To correlate the imaging findings and pathology  

Background:   “Ectopic” means “in an abnormal position”. There are various type of ectopic lesions in the abdmen. Imaging diagnosis of unusual “ectopic” lesions in the abdomen has always been a challenge for the radiologist.     I. Ectopic organ and its pathology   Ectopic liver (HCC), Ectop[...]

Findings and procedure details:   I. Ectopic Organ and Its Pathology   HCC in Ectopic Liver   Ectopic liver (Fig.1) is defined as liver tissue distinctly outside the liver without any communication with the liver; the accessory lobe (Fig.2) is described as liver tissue connected to the liver often by a sta[...]

Conclusion:   Imaging diagnosis of unusual “ectopic” lesions in the abdomen has always been a challenge for the radiologists. There are various type of ectopic lesions in the abdomen: Ectopic organ and its pathology, Spillage of pathology from original organ, and abdominal pregnancy. Familiarity with [...]

Personal information:

References: 1. Kim KA, Park CM, Kim CH, Choi SY, Park SW, Hong SJ, Seol HY, Cha IH. Hepatocellular carcinoma in an ectopic liver: CT findings. Eur Radiol. 2003;13:L45-47   2. Cho JS, Shin KS, Kwon ST, Kim JW, Song CJ, Noh SM, Kang DY, Kim HY, Kang HK. Heterotopic pancreas in the stomach: CT findings. Radio[...]


Imaging predictors of invasive breast cancer in patients with US-guided core needle biopsy confirmed ductal carcinoma in situ

Y. Shin1, S. Kim2, S. Lee3, B. Yun4, M. J. Jang2; 1 Seong Nam, Gyeongi-Do/KR 2 Gyeonggi-do/KR 3 Bundang Gu/KR 4 Seongnam/KR

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Aims and objectives: Percutaneous ultrasound (US)-guided core needle biopsy is conventional procedure for the preoperative histopathologic assessment of breast lesion detected on ultrasound due to its accuracy, less-invasiveness and cost-effectiveness [1, 2]. However, there has been frequent underestimation of preoperat[...]

Methods and materials: Patient selection Between January 2015 to September 2016, 135 patients (total 145 lesions including bilateral breast cancer patient) were confirmed to have DCIS on US-guided biopsy after reviewing the pathology and imaging database. We excluded 27 patients who had coexisting invasive ductal carcinom[...]

Results: Among 80 lesions, 27 lesions had invasive component (33.8%) after excision. Final BI-RADS assessment (P=0.015) and nuclear grade (P=0.005) were significantly correlated with invasiveness of the mass. Mean value of maximum stiffness value, and mean stiffness value were lower at pure DCIS group, but s[...]

Conclusion: BI-RADS category assessment based on US finding, and nuclear grade of DCIS were able to predict independently the presence of invasive component in DCIS, preoperatively.

Personal information:

References: 1. Donahue EJ. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Tissue Sampling: Technique and Breast Ultrasound Characteristics of Benign and Malignant Lesions. In: Breast Cancer; Springer, 2014;133-148 2. Liberman L. Percutaneous image-guided core breast biopsy. Radiologic Clinics of North America 2002;40:483-500 [...]


Nerve of the thorax: what radiologists should recognize

H. Park, M. Kim; Seoul/KR

Learning objectives: Intrathoracic nerves include phrenic nerves, vagus nerves, recurrent laryngeal nerves, sympathetic trunks, costal nerves, and long thoracic nerves.     The purposes of this presentations are: To outline the anatomy of the various nerves in the thorax using diagram and correlate it wi[...]

Background: The radiologic evaluation of patients with thoracic diseases rarely includes a specific review of intrathoracic nerves. Non-diseased nerves are typically not seen on radiograph or computed tomography (CT), the primary imaging modalities for thoracic imaging. However, the clinical manifestations of s[...]

Findings and procedure details: Anatomy of each nerves and correlation with cross-sectional images 1. Phrenic nerves originate from 3rd-5th cranial nerves and course downward, anteriorly to the scalene muscles. Right phrenic nerve courses laterally to the brachiocephalic vein (BCV) and superior vena cava (SVC). Left phrenic nerv[...]

Conclusion: Familiarity with the anatomy and clinical significance of the nerves of the thorax is important for the correct interpretation of thoracic images. Also, Knowledge of the full spectrum of thoracic neurogenic tumours can provide radiological clues for narrowing the differential diagnosis and assisting[...]

Personal information:

References: 1. Aquino SL, Duncan GR, Hayman LA. Nerves of the Thorax: Atlas of Normal and Pathologic Findings. RadioGraphics 2001;21:1275-81   2. Mashimoto Y, Krishinan S, Fowler et al. Detection of Phrenic Nerves and Their Relation to Cardiac Anatomy Using 64-Slice Multidetector Computed Tomography. Am J[...]


Many faces of the centrilobular nodules: What should radiologists consider?

N. Lee, K. Do; Seoul/KR

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Learning objectives: 1. To review wide spectrum of entities presenting as centrilobular nodules based on cases 2. To identify characteristic CT patterns of centrilobular nodules depending on underlying diseases. 3. To discuss the differential points in the diagnosis. 4. To learn the clinical characteristics such as age[...]

Background: Centrilobular nodules are well known for characteristic CT finding of diseases that affect small airways which has a wide spectrum of entities. This finding is histopathologically correlate with bronchial/peribronchiolar inflammation, dilated bronchioles or bronchiolar deposition of materials such a[...]

Findings and procedure details: 1. Introduction Centrilobular nodule is defined as a nodular opacity within the center of the secondary pulmonary lobule. The core of the secondary pulmonary lobule contains bronchioles, pulmonary arterioles and lymphatics. Therefore, condition which affects bronchiole, arteriole, peribronchiole, [...]

Conclusion: We reviewed the various causes of centrilobular nodules with their clinical and radiologic findings.

Personal information:

References: 1. Pipavath SJ, Lynch DA, Coll C, Brown KK, Newell, JD. Radiologic and Pathologic Features of Bronchiolitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;185:354-363. 2. Silva CIS, Churg A, Muller NL. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: Spectrum of High-Resolution CT and Pathologic Findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188:33[...]

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