SS 1414 - Radiography education
Do radiographers find evidence-based practice (EBP) a suitable tool for developing guidelines or protocols in imaging departments?
Purpose: To investigate if radiographers find EBP suitable for developing guidelines or protocols in imaging departments in Norway.
Methods and Materials: The study has a qualitative inductive design with phenomenological approach. Data collection took place in individual, semi-structured interviews. Inclusion criteria: Radiographers with experience in developing guidelines or protocols in imaging departments. Managers in eight imaging departments received information about the study and inclusion criteria by email, to help in recruitment by suggesting participants. Fourteen suggested participants received information about the study by email. Seven radiographers in five different imaging departments who met the inclusion criteria choose to participate in the study. The author transcribed and analysed all interviews.
Results: The study reveals shortcomings and certain misunderstandings regarding EBP. It suggests that brief encounters with patients and complex high-tech equipment stands out as factors that can complicate the use of EBP in imaging diagnostics. Few respondents have had training or courses in EBP. Radiographers who have, believes that the method is suitable for developing guidelines and protocols. Radiographers that has little knowledge regarding EBP has the perception that the method is unnecessary and complicated. There seems to be a clear connection between the extent of knowledge radiographers have about the method, and to what extent they find EBP suitable for developing guidelines and protocols.
Conclusion: The findings in this study suggests that further focus on EBP, education-courses and time to search for research articles is needed in order to fully utilize EBP in developing guidelines and protocols.
Radiographer and elderly people in x-ray examinations: is there a need for radiographers' further education?
Purpose: Population in developed countries is ageing strongly. Increased life expectancy results increase in chronic illnesses. Number of elderly people using health services is increasing and more than half of all elderly patients are daily patients in many hospitals. The purpose of this study was to find out radiographer's opinions towards elderly people who are coming to radiological examinations and to find out further education needs of radiographers.
Methods and Materials: Radiographers working in magnetic resonance imaging, computer tomography, mammography, ultrasound and x-ray imaging were included in this survey. A link to questionnaire was sent by Webropol to radiographers (N=152) and data was analysed with Webropol data analysis and survey tools programme. The open questions were analysed using textual analysing methods.
Results: Radiographers want more information about physiological and physical changes following ageing. Radiographers felt that they know how to work with elderly patients and how to change procedures to fit better to patient’s needs, but agree that some procedures are harder with elderly. Most difficult modalities are magnetic resonance and x-ray imaging. There is enough knowledge about elderly, but radiographers are still open for information and further education. Radiographers felt that the knowledge about elderly and co-operation with them was learnt more through practice than in academic lectures during the basic education.
Conclusion: Radiographers are aware of the needs of elderly patients but there is still need for further education to deepen knowledge, e.g. in physiological senescence.
Purpose: Producing x-ray images for the purpose of Radio Stereometric Analysis (RSA) is a demanding radiography technic resulting in high percentage of exposure repetition. The aim of this study is to investigate if RSA focused training and experience in performing RSA examinations, have effect on development of radiographers’ skills and improvement on quality of RSA x-ray images.
Methods and Materials: Four radiographers are selected for the study group. Assessment of radiographers’ performance is divided in two phases in this project identified as cyclus1 and cyclus2. Each cycle includes 20 examinations on phantom followed by 10 patient examinations. The quality of all x-ray images performed during the two cycles will be measured by number of beads visible (NB) and the centre position of prosthesis (CP) compared to centre of calibration field (CCF). The number of re-exposures used to obtain a usable image during patient examinations will be recorded
Results: After a workshop training on phantom and gaining experience on the patient examinations radiographers projecting images where CP is in average 36,1mm closer to the CCF (p<0,001), NB visible increase significantly with 3,1 (p<0,001) and radiographers use between 2, 1 and 2, 9 exposures less to obtain a usable images during patient examinations in cyclus2 (p<0,001).
Conclusion: Experience and training implemented in this project have significant effect on development of radiographers’ skills and improvement on quality of RSA x-ray images. This improvement will results in decreasing of radiation dose delivering to the RSA patients.
The impact of innovative technological change on employee motivation: a case study of radiographers working in the public healthcare in Malta
Purpose: Explores how innovative technological change has an impact on the level of motivation in radiographers and develop useful strategies to overcome innovation resistance and increase user acceptance of technology.
Methods and Materials: The impact of innovative technological change on employee motivation was identified using a cross-sectional, non-experimental research design. 70 radiographers participated in an online questionnaire survey, which enquired about employees’ motivation factors, use of technology, sources of occupational stress and resistance to change.
Results: This study reveals which factors motivate radiographers and the causes for employee dissatisfaction. It also demonstrates that innovative technology improves quality of their work and enables a more efficient service. Although radiographers are prepared for the challenges brought about by innovative change, they are uncertain and under-confident on the introduction of an innovative technology in their work. This research establishes which employees are more likely to resist an innovation, and identifies the factors contributing to resistance to change.
Conclusion: Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that there is a significant association between innovative technological change and employee motivation in radiography. The author has put forward a number of conclusions and recommendations which offer effective means of improving innovative change in radiography, with the aim of increasing employee motivation and user acceptance of technology, while reducing dissatisfaction and resistance to change.
Purpose: The 3-week OPTIMAX summer school involves approximately 50 international students working in facilitated groups. As well as being pedagogically valuable for students, OPTIMAX provides tutor learners (TLs) with an opportunity to develop facilitation skills. We aimed to provide TLs with a structured learning framework involving peer observation. We report our method and findings
Methods and Materials: Following a preparatory tutorial on observation and facilitation, TLs observed their allocated facilitator using a template developed for the project until data had been saturated (typically 3 hours). Post-observation, TLs and the facilitator being observed, reflected together on observations to clarify and verify interpretation. TLs then wrote up these reflections. TLs attended a consensus meeting to develop a thematic framework related to themes grounded in the reflective observations. This framework was then circulated along with all the reflective reports for detailed analysis and framework refinement.
Results: 6 TLs observed 7 facilitators in a variety of permutations: paired, singly, and over the length of Optimax. This allowed us to consider intra- and inter-observer differences, group dynamics, and changes in facilitator behaviour over time. Key themes: (i) tutor emotion/ personality heavily influenced group dynamic and development; (ii) experience in facilitating learning was more important than topic knowledge; (iii) effective facilitation engaged students in demonstrating their understanding rather than just stating it; (iv) group configuration is important.
Conclusion: Facilitators strongly influence group development so should be adequately prepared for their role. Experienced tutors and TLs found peer-observation informative for professional development.
Purpose: Radiographic practice encompasses knowledge of imaging technologies, radiation safety, anatomy and patient care in order to produce images of diagnostic quality. While computer programmes can enhance simulated learning of the image acquisition process, the practice of positioning patients and reviewing anatomical appearances on resultant images has required clinical placement experience and supervised exposure of patients to x-radiation. This proof of concept study explores whether motion capture technologies might be developed to simulate real life clinical radiographic practice.
Methods and Materials: Using an XSENS MVN motion capture suit and configured hardware, we developed a purposeful coding programme to link body position of suit wearer to CT and radiographic image data of a chest phantom to simulate varying degrees of sagittal rotation.
Results: The motion capture technology permitted students to practice chest radiography within the university simulation suite and allowed real time evaluation of the relationship between patient position and chest image appearances without exposure to x-rays. The technology also enabled students to discuss image acceptability and repeat imaging thresholds as well as develop confidence in 'touching' patients during positioning and appreciate patient experience in a meaningful way.
Conclusion: Motion capture technologies are well established within the film and media industry and could be developed to create a simulated radiography education environment that reflects actual practice. This is the first study to explore this concept and consider the potential of motion capture technologies to enhance the development of radiography practical skills and reduce the risks associated with 'learning on patients'.
Purpose: The aim of this research was to compare the requirements to practise radiography across the EU. As a health-care profession that uses ionising radiation, this profession has a great impact on the health and safety of the population. Due to the free movement of professionals across borders (Directive 2005/36/EC), it is important to explore the education and competencies required of staff across the EU to ensure this health and safety is maintained.
Methods and Materials: A descriptive, non-experimental, qualitative methodology was used. Competent authorities were identified through the Regulated Profession Database (RPD) of the European Commission and the requirements to practise the profession were requested. Inductive analysis of the data was performed using thematic analysis.
Results: Twenty-seven out of the 28 EU member states have the profession regulated and although most countries require some level of education they vary considerably in level, subjects covered and branches/specialisms. Fourteen different English titles were identified in the RPD under the generic name of “Radiographer/Radiotherapist”, indicating different branches and levels of autonomy.
Conclusion: There is no uniformity in the title and requirements to practise radiography in the EU, leading to a lack of uniformity in education. This limits free movement of professionals since the level and subjects covered by the professional are verified prior to registration in the host country. It is, therefore, important to identify and close the educational gaps between countries to ensure that feasibility of professional movement and patient safety are not compromised.
Subsequent publication of orally presented original studies within five years presented at the European Congress of Radiology 2010
Purpose: To determine the rate at which original studies that were presented orally at the European Congress of Radiology (ECR) 2010 were published in Medline-indexed journals and to identify factors predictive of publication.
Methods and Materials: The Scientific Program of ECR 2010 was reviewed by one reader. A total of 869 abstracts were included in the study. A Medline search of articles published between March 2010 through February 2015 was conducted to identify articles written by the first, second, and/or last authors of all abstracts published in the Scientific Program of ECR 2010. The year of publication, journal, country origin of the abstract, subspecialty, and nature of the research (i.e., human, animal, or technical) were recorded.
Results: 450 abstracts were expanded into manuscripts that were subsequently published in Medline-indexed journals (overall publication rate, 52%). Subspecialty molecular imaging and cardiac radiology studies had the highest publication rates (75% and 62%, respectively), whereas computer applications studies had the lowest (28%). The publication rate also differed substantially according to the nature of research. The articles were published in a total of 125 journals, most of them in radiology journals (317/450, 70%), and chiefly in European Radiology (50 cases, 11% of published studies). Of all published manuscripts 87% (393/450) were published within a 3 year time Frame.
Conclusion: More than half of original studies presented orally at the ECR 2010 were subsequently published in Medline-indexed journals. More articles were published in the journal European Radiology than in any other identified journal.
Purpose: Radiographer trainee supervisors have a permanent need to communicate and exchange information between the hospital and the university. The aim of this work was to develop a tool to help the monitoring and assess the trainees in different clinical placement locations.
Methods and Materials: Recurring to Google sites, we have developed a multi-profiled site, based on user authentication permissions, where the supervisor can consult information regarding the place of internship and trainees, and fill out trainee's individual assessments. The evaluation form with the criteria is provided for all supervisors. The supervisors from the university as administrators can consult and compile all of the information available in a daily basis.
Results: The trial version is functional and answering the initial needs requested by the hospital supervisors. Trainees monitoring and assessment is simplified, reducing the number of dislocations between hospitals and the university.
Conclusion: This tool provides clearly written up-to-date learning outcomes/objectives (the learning outcomes are reviewed and assessed) appropriate to the practice placement environment.
Purpose: Ultrasound examiners are medical doctors from different areas like radiologists, internists, gynaecologists and also radiographers, physiotherapists and biomedical scientists. Optimal training procedures for all groups involved in medical imaging is of real importance. Medical ultrasound examinations are a powerful alternative to more expensive and/or invasive imaging modalities. Worldwide, different training procedures are in place, but little is known about the cognitive processes that lead to the transformation of the visual information provided by the ultrasound image into an anatomical and pathological assessment.
Methods and Materials: A prospective quasi-experimental study design was applied to compare the visualization performance of radiographer students in Ultrasound imaging, evaluating two groups, one with traditional method, the other with augmented e-Learning method. Overall 97 of 6th Semester Bachelor degree radiographer students at University of Applied Sciences FH Campus Wien participated in this descriptive-statistical evaluation, 41 assigned to the traditional group and 56 to the augmented e-Learning group.
Results: The e-Learning group had a faster increase of correct visualizations. But the difference declined during follow-up. Greatest problems in correct assignment of anatomical structures were detected for middle upper epigastric region (pancreas-region, vessels), retroperitoneal-region as well as for the correct orientation during three-dimensional dynamic measurements.
Conclusion: E-Learning tools may have advantages in early stages of ultrasound examiner education. Training of three-dimensional dynamic measured procedures should be forced due to the difficulty to maintain stable perception of organic structures.