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05:54 CET
SF 9b - Clinical simulation and its role in radiography education
Education Radiographers Students
Friday, March 1, 08:30 - 10:00
Room: C
Type of session: Special Focus Session
Topic: Education, Radiographers, Students
Moderators: L. Oleaga Zufiría (Barcelona/ES), F. Zarb (Msida/MT)

A-0489
08:30
Chairpersons' introduction (Part 1)
L. Oleaga Zufiría; Barcelona/ES
Learning Objectives

1. To review the evolution of training and radiology education in Europe.
2. To evaluate the challenges facing radiology education with the expanding use of informatics.
3. To analyse how clinical simulation methods can transform education in radiology.

Abstract

There is a diversity of requirements and training schemes for radiographers within European countries. A current challenge is the importance to harmonise and standardise radiography training and accreditation across borders. The digital revolution in Radiology and Radiography continues to advance rapidly. Informatics and information technology evolution are going to substantially reshape the practice of Radiology and Radiography over the next decade. There are a number of interesting developments within informatics, which may have a significant impact on Radiology and Radiography education, and training in the near future. These include the extended functionality of handheld computers, web-based skill and knowledge assessment, standardisation of procedural training using simulated or virtual patients and worldwide online learning. Simulation programmes have proved to be effective in other specialities as a method for teaching and learning. There are mannequin-based simulation programmes, computer-based and simulators for an ultrasound and interventional radiology. Simulation training impacts on the learning curve with numerous benefits for the preparation of radiology/radiography students which will, in turn, benefit the service provided to patients. Simulation provides an option for training, but the place of this within any curricula needs to be carefully determined to promote the highest levels of competency. The education of the future must be a learner-centred education. Trainees must have an active role in the learning process. The teachers are not suppliers of knowledge and information, but organisers of activities and directors of learning experiences.

A-0490
08:33
Chairpersons' introduction (Part 2)
F. Zarb; Msida/MT
Learning Objectives

1. To review the evolution of training and radiology education in Europe.
2. To evaluate the challenges facing radiology education with the expanding use of informatics.
3. To analyse how clinical simulation methods can transform education in radiology.

Abstract

Radiology and Radiography education are evolving in line with developments in informatics which has provided a range of new tools for teaching and learning, which are going to substantially reshape the practice of Radiology and Radiography over the next decade. These include the extended functionality of handheld computers, web-based skill and knowledge assessment, standardisation of procedural training using simulated or virtual patients and worldwide online learning. Simulation programs have proved to be effective in other specialities as a method for teaching and learning. Simulation training impacts on the learning curve with numerous benefits for the preparation of radiology/radiography students which will, in turn, benefit the service provided to patients. Simulation provides an option for training, but the place of this within any curricula needs to be carefully determined to promote the highest levels of competency.

A-0491
08:35
Clinical radiography education across Europe: an overview
J. McNulty; Dublin/IE
Learning Objectives

1. To present the developments of radiography education.
2. To discuss the current status of radiography education in Europe.
3. To evaluate the challenges and future of radiography education.

Abstract

The European Federation of Radiographer Societies (EFRS) represents over 8,000 radiography students through a unique part of pour organisation, namely, the Educational Wing which consists of 61 educational institutions. Education and training are at the heart of several strategic priority areas of the EFRS. The educational aim of the EFRS is to promote and develop all levels of radiography education and research across Europe. Objectives include: the development and advancement of educational standards for radiographer education in Europe; the development of European Qualifications Framework benchmarking documents for radiographers at Bachelors and Masters levels; to research, disseminate and publish materials and knowledge generated by the Educational Wing; and to provide assistance to those institutions wishing to develop or enhance their radiography programmes; and to develop evidence-based practice and radiographer-led research. High educational standards for radiographers are of utmost importance for our profession. This is especially true for the clinical training components of radiography education programmes. However, the clinical components of our curricula present many challenges, some of which were identified through recent EFRS surveys. While similarities exist in the provision of clinical radiography education across Europe, some major differences were also identified in terms of the amount of clinical time in programmes, the supervisory structures, and the governance and oversight of these placements. Professional societies should work collaboratively to establish guidelines for effective clinical placements. This will help ensure our graduates are fit for purpose.

A-0492
08:50
Innovation in education: virtual education/computer-based simulator vs patient imaging
A. England; Salford/GB
Learning Objectives

1. To demonstrate the benefits of using new teaching approaches.
2. To show how new teaching instruments can improve and shorten the learning curve.
3. To evaluate the pros and cons of radiography education through simulation and patient imaging.

Abstract

Full-body high-fidelity simulations have formed part of healthcare education for a number of years, especially within the nursing and medicine disciplines. These lifelike mannequins are operated from a computer system with the ability to generate complex events and respond to multiple stimuli. The author, as a radiography educator, has a number of years of experience in integrating patient simulation into radiography training. Such teaching sessions are typically divided into the pre-simulation experience, the simulation and the post-simulation experience. Such an approach is essential to promote realism and also identify feedback and development opportunities. Within the undergraduate radiography programme, a case scenario on contrast anaphylaxis is commonly undertaken using high-fidelity simulation. Within this presentation the contrast anaphylaxis scenario is used as an example of clinical simulation, the advantages and disadvantages of this teaching method, as identified by teaching staff and students, are also discussed. Comparisons are also made with alternative teaching and learning approaches. It is important to stress than simulation is an extremely valuable pedagogical approach, but its merits must be considered amongst the other available teaching and learning methodologies. A diverse curriculum is essential for a high-quality radiography degree programme.

A-0493
09:05
High fidelity: clinical simulation for undergraduate radiography
A. Louw; Johannesburg/ZA
Learning Objectives

1. To discuss ethics in simulation practices.
2. To provide an overview on how to prepare and execute a simulation experience.
3. To highlight the challenges and opportunities of clinical simulation at the undergraduate level.

Abstract

Within the radiography domain, Simulation-Based Education (SBE) is valued as a pedagogical approach, but the design of simulation experiences, incorporating educational and cognitive theories, still needs exploration to advise best practice guidelines. Educational psychologists indicate that no new knowledge is created in passive manners and they emphasise the need for interaction and stimulation from the environment. Creative teaching methods that capture the interest and imagination of students are also said to stimulate the creative problem-solving ability that radiography students need in their daily working environment - an ability which various researchers point out as lacking among radiography students. SBE offers interaction, stimulation and various opportunities for creativity, but to optimise learning and teaching, educators must also consider the impact of cognitive load, scaffolding and reflection, when they develop simulation experiences. Whereas SBE in the health professions initially developed in response to the awareness that it is unethical to use patients as teaching aids and skills practice commodities, the call for equal and optimal training opportunities that will result in optimal patient centred care now provides further impetus. The increasing authenticity of simulation experiences, however, presents with unexpected ethical issues of concern. Students experience high fidelity manikins often as real-life patients, and the deterioration and demise of these patients can have a major emotional impact on them. Educators should acknowledge that the principle of beneficence applies to both patients and students and must be aware of the possible emotional effect on students and how to manage it.

A-0494
09:20
How simulation can help prepare students and have a positive impact on interprofessional working
A. Henner; Oulu/FI
Learning Objectives

1. To demonstrate how interprofessional collaborations improve a service to patients.
2. To describe clinical team skills training in formative summative simulations.
3. To discuss the benefits of student preparation through simulation.

Abstract

Interprofessional education is a collaborative approach to develop healthcare students as future interprofessional team members. Interprofessional teams can address complex medical issues. Training future healthcare providers to work in such teams improve healthcare outcomes for patients. With the didactic program, interprofessional collaboration skills, knowledge of professions, patient-centred care, service learning and the impact of culture on healthcare delivery are improved. The community-based experience demonstrates how interprofessional collaborations provide service to patients and how the environment and availability of resources impact one's health status. The interprofessional-simulation experience describes clinical team skills training in both formative and summative simulations. In a simulation-based experience, formative assessment or summative evaluation can be used. Formative assessment fosters personal and professional development and helps participants progress toward achieving objectives. Assessment of student learning in a simulation is no longer a passive activity in which the educator determines how well individual or group performs. Summative evaluation focuses on measurement of outcomes or achievement of objectives and supports the assessment or evaluation of behaviours cognitive (knowledge), affective (attitude), and psychomotor (skills) areas. A successful experience in simulation helps students to understand their professional identity while gaining an understanding of other professional's roles on health care team and offers a safe environment exercise even difficult tasks. Commitment from departments and colleges, diverse calendar agreements, curricular mapping, mentor and faculty training, a sense of community, adequate physical space, technology, and community relationships are critical resources for a successful simulation and positive attitude to work together.

A-0495
09:35
Providing opportunities for practical ultrasound training
B. Kraus; Vienna/AT
Learning Objectives

1. To know the role of hands-on training in ultrasonography.
2. To appreciate the value of learning ultrasonography through hands on training.
3. To discuss the opportunities for radiographers training in ultrasound.

Abstract

The major challenge in the education of Radiographers in Ultrasound or "Sonographers" all over Europe is, to create a training scenario closely related to clinical reality. To perform Ultrasound in a proper way, hands-on training is mandatory and cannot be replaced by anything else. One option is Skill Lab Training Sessions. Students train on each other to learn and strengthen the major skills by correctly using the Ultrasound probe, implementing the theoretical knowledge about physics and optimization in correctly manipulating scan parameters to adequately demonstrate and be able to visualise anatomical structures in a correct manner. These are the key points in diagnostic ultrasound performance. Other options are different web-based skill and knowledge assessments and simulator-based training settings. Utilities from different providers are for example augmented with real patient scans, including haptic feedback by using a probe, real-time assisted guidance and comprehensive metric-based assessment in one system. Trainers and tutors are able, to upload their own patient scans/cases and share them with other users. The major difference between simulated practice and scanning on each other is the benefit of simulating real clinical case scenarios, including pathological findings during training. However, a balanced combination of hands-on training (Students on each other), simulator-based/web-based training and clinical experience under medical supervision in compliance with all ethical aspects is the ultimate goal in practical ultrasound education.

09:50
Panel discussion: Is simulation enough to meet the current challenges facing radiography education? Can simulation replace hands-on patient experience?
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