1. To review the mediastinal anatomy according to old and new classifications.
2. To recap signs useful in localising and characterising mediastinal lesions.
3. To know how to choose the most appropriate imaging modality to explore the mediastinum according to the diagnostic question.
Several pathological conditions can arise from such a complex anatomical structure as the mediastinum, including large airways, large and small vessels, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, nerves, oesophagus, heart, and pericardium. The wide spectrum of mediastinal diseases makes their differential diagnosis very challenging at times. To simplify the clinical approach to the mediastinal lesions many classifications of the mediastinum based either on either chest radiography or CT have been proposed. Knowledge of the most appropriate technique to use in each clinical context as well as knowledge of specific imaging signs and features are needed to narrow the spectrum of differential diagnosis and to address most questions arisen when a mediastinal mass is either seen or suspected at chest radiography. Old and new classifications will be compared and their value discussed as well as signs useful in localising and characterising mediastinal lesions will be examined.
1. To know how to interpret mediastinal lines and contours in chest radiography.
2. To get familiar with "signs" in chest radiography helpful for diagnosis.
3. To know the normal appearance of lung parenchyma on CT and to use the anatomy of the secondary lobule for analysis of chest diseases.
1. To learn peculiarities of coronary arteries anatomy with specific referral to its implications on myocardial physiology.
2. To review anatomic features of pulmonary arteries and thoracic aorta.
3. To examine patterns and variants of the venous drainage of both the pulmonary and caval system.
Present lecture aims to review the normal anatomy of chest vasculature including caval venous system, great vessels and coronary arteries. Common and less common variants and anomalies will also be displayed and classified, analysing strength and weakness of different imaging methods. Some of these anomalies are found in children having impact, but they are more commonly discovered later in adulthood. Many of these anomalies are asymptomatic or 'leave alone' lesions, but some of these anomalies are symptomatic and need to be treated. Not only cardiovascular imaging dedicated physicians but all general radiologist we have to be familiar with normal vascular anatomy as well as common and less common anomalies.